Generally, Intel does not like it if you overclock its chips unless you have bought one of the ‘K’ models which come with a number of configurations built-in that can be quickly accessed and tested via the BIOS.
Overclocked entry-level non-K Alder Lake-S CPUs have been getting some impressive levels of performance especially so on the highly-affordable i3-12100. Intel is getting a bit spooked probably because it being seen as the more preferable solution than buying a more expensive and faster ‘stock’ solution.
To be fair to milk the CPU to its full potential you need a top of the range motherboard which will cost more than three times the value of the chip. But still, Intel appears concerned that too many people will try it.
According to TechPowerUp, Intel has issued a formal warning that overclocking non-K variants of their processors doesn’t come without its risks. Mostly notably being your warranty.
“Intel’s 12th Gen non-K processors were not designed for overclocking. Intel does not warranty the operation of processors beyond their specifications. Altering clock frequency or voltage may damage or reduce the useful life of the processor and other system components, and may reduce system stability and performance.”