Documents obtained from Edward Snowden show the cyberwarfare techniques used by Canada's Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) are particularly interesting.
The Canadians have the capacity and perform 'false flag' operations, where responsibility for cyberattacks, counterattacks or other intelligence-related activity is misattributed to individuals, groups or nation states.
Limited details of CSEC's cyberwarfare capabilities and disposition have just been made public and show 'deception tactics' including 'false flag' techniques, carried out in order to 'create unrest'.
The spooks call it 'altering adversary perception' which is an amusing choice of words for a phrase which actually means conning a country into attacking someone else.
The CSEC uses 'honeypot' or 'watering hole' techniques in service of generating deceptive cyberactivity; though no greater detail is given on that point, the principle is one of presenting a tempting online target and attempting to gain advantage from the actors attracted to it.
The Canadian spooks work with the US NSA in service of an 'active computer network access and exploitation on a variety of foreign intelligence targets, including counter terrorism, Middle East, North Africa, Europe, and Mexico'.
A leaked NSA briefing paper cited by Intercept/CBC outlines the close relationship that the CSE maintains with the United States' National Security Agency (NSA):
The CSEC offers resources for advanced collection, processing and analysis, and has opened covert sites at the request of the NSA. CSEC shares with NSA their unique geographic access to areas unavailable to the U.S.(i.e. their sites in the PRC), and provides cryptographic products, cryptanalysis, technology and software. CSEC has increased its investment in R&D projects of mutual interest.